Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia
Received 12 May 2003;
Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.
Author Keywords: Author Keywords: Gas; Offshore; Oil; Radium; Scale; Sludge; Spectrometer; TENORM; Waste